The biological attributes of plants represent a stable set of attributes, which enable managers to devise control approaches, but such approaches are likely to be upset by stochastic events such as fires, floods or budget cuts. An integrated approach involving the combined use of range of methods is usually necessary to control invasive alien plants effectively. This List is constantly being reviewed by the Panel (new species can be added and others removed). Alien invasive plants are a problem because they: can waste a large proportion of national water resources (7% estimated in South Africa); lead to the loss of potentially productive land, and the loss of grazing potential and livestock production; reduce the ability to harvest indigenous natural resources; increase the problems associated with flooding and fires; cause erosion, destruction of rivers, siltation of dams and estuaries, and poor water quality; can cause a mass extinction of indigenous plants and animals. For over 60 years, EPPO has sought to prevent the introduction and spread of organisms which are harmful to plants in the European and Mediterranean region. The plants listed below have been identified by the Panel as being absent or present in the EPPO region; as having a high potential for spread; as posing an important threat to plant health and/or the environment and biodiversity; and eventually as having other detrimental social impacts in the EPPO region. Invasive alien plants were first noted as a problem in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 1937. Billions of Dollars are lost every year in many countries due to damage done by invading alien plants. Apply only to the cambium or outer layer of large stumps and the entire cut surface of small stumps. For instance our common Acacia karoo is is now called Vachellia karoo. This can seriously deplete soil moisture and reduce groundwater recharge, the base-flow of springs and ultimately the flow in rivers and streams. Title: Alien and Invasive Species Lists, 2016 Government Gazette Notice: GN 864 in GG 40166 of 29 July 2016 Commencing date: 60 days from date of publication. Economica) Benefits 15. Space holes around entire circumference of lower stems. They proceed to grow prolifically, threatening the indigenous plant and animal secrecies. Many IAPs are products of unwise and unintentional plant introductions, but if new invasions are discovered before they are well established, eradication is possible and management co… Species recorded in the Alert List are assessed through the EPPO Prioritization process to determine whether they should fall into the List of Invasive Alien Plants, the Observation List, or a PRA should be conducted. Plant species, before being submitted to a PRA, have been identified as posing a risk by the EPPO prioritization process. Invaders and weed species are plants that invade natural or semi-natural habitats; especially areas disturbed by humans and are commonly known as environmental weeds. Invasive Alien Plants (IAPs) are widely considered as a major threat to biodiversity, human livehoods and economic development. Because a large number of invasive alien plants are already present in the EPPO region, priorities were set in order to select those species considered to pose the greatest threat to species and ecosystems in the EPPO region. Of these introduced species, fewer than 3,000 have natural… EPPO activities on Invasive Alien Plants . No indigenous Vachellia / Senegalia tree (prev. Hand pull: Grip the young plant low down and pull out by hand (using gloves). Invasive alien plants which have been added to the EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests are listed in the table below. Government efforts to address the problem often involve several departments including water, forestry, agriculture, environment etc. Ensure to effect the cuts around the entire stem and apply herbicide into the cuts. The purpose of the EPPO A1/A2 Lists is to recommend that organisms of serious phytosanitary concern should be regulated as quarantine pests by EPPO member countries (A1 pests are absent from the EPPO region and A2 pests are locally present in the EPPO region). Biological control can provide effective control in the short and medium term in some cases, and it is often the only really sustainable solution in the longer term. Another source of alien invasive species is the intentional importation and release of insects, snails, plant pathogens and nematodes for biological control of pests. Considering the water prospects we are faced with, it is not a situation that we can afford. Eradication programs cost money. No herbicide used. Xhosa names for invasive plants. PRAs) and follows a meticulous approval procedure. More than 30,000 species of plants have been introduced to the United States since the time of Columbus. During this process the Panel is documenting invasive alien plant species on data sheets and when necessary, conducting Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) following the EPPO Decision-support scheme, 'Pest Risk Analysis for quarantine pests'. All Rights Reserved | EPPO Cloud [wwwzend912test]. All Acacia’s listed on the Alien Invasive Plant List are all Australian species of Wattle. Where trees cannot be utilised (for example on steep slopes), do not fell trees, control them in situ. Invasive plants are introduced species that cause health, economic or ecological damage in their new range. With invasive plants having high evaporation rates, they often use more water than surrounding indigenous … Scientists have previously estimated that all invasive species - including microbes, animals and plants - cause damage of more than $1.4 trillion a year to the world economy. The objective of the EPPO Alert List is to provide early warning and eventually to propose candidates which may be subjected to a PRA. Alien plants have several negative impacts on landscapes. Effective management of invading alien plants in natural and semi-natural systems is imperative if we are to prevent enormous impacts. Invasive plants have an impact on native species and unless these factors are properly understood, it is difficult to predict what sort of impact invasive plants will have. By simple definition, invasive plants are alien species that show a tendency to spread out of control. It is stressed that inclusion in the Observation List is not definitive, and changes can be made when additional information is recorded, particularly when information on invasiveness becomes available, or when a significant change in the invasive behaviour is observed. EPPO, in the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is developing a cooperative Europe-wide strategy to protect the EPPO region against invasive alien plants. This list contains plant species (absent or present in the EPPO region) which present a medium risk or for which information currently available is not sufficient to make an accurate assessment. In 2002 the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants was created and was given the task to identify invasive alien plant species which may present a risk to the EPPO region, and to propose management options. Because of the implications of extensive invasions, politicians and officials are often apt to hope that the problem will somehow solve itself until a point is reached where action has to be taken. SANBI Biodiversity Series The South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) was established on 1 September 2004 through the signing into force of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA) No. Do not cut the bark. In order to get any effective national scale program under way there are a number of pre-requisites: The first and most important requirement is recognition that there is a problem. [Picture - Going nowhere - Water Hyacinth gets out of control on Lake Victoria.]. This has particularly devastating impacts in developing countries which lack the resources to tackle the problem. Only with their participation and in cooperation with the local communities can the project’s goals be achieved. Where trees can be felled and removed use chainsaws, bowsaws, brushcutters or machetes. The family Cactaceae Juss. Ensure the stumps are cut as low to the ground as possible about 100 – 150 mm. Invasive alien plants are invading approximately 700,000 ha year −1 of natural communities in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2002).Invasive alien plants are defined as alien plants that reproduce offspring in very large numbers and at large distances from parent plants and thus have the potential to spread over a considerable area (Richardson et al., 2000). - interaction and co-operation between these departments is important for eradication programs to be effective. The listing of pests is based on technical justifications (i.e. Adequate Legal and Institutional Framework. The cost and effort required to make a significant impact on invasive alien plants is not seen as a politically attractive allocation of resources - it is remedial effort, the results of which are generally not obvious to the public eye. EPPO protects plants in agriculture, forestry and the uncultivated environment. Macdonald Pretoria 2007. 46 Xhosa names for invasive plants have been identified by the Selmar Schonland Herbarium, Rhodes University Botany Department, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. Such plants in their own native eco-systems are constrained and of no harm but, when introduced into foreign habitats can cause enormous damage. Cambium is stripped with the bark. The term "invasive" is poorly defined and often very subjective, Invasive species may be plants, animals, fungi, and microbes, some also include native species that have invaded humane habitats … They are non-native to an ecosystem, and may cause economic or environmental harm. Regulations should provide for the classification of plants into suitable categories, whereby landowners are required to ensure that plants belonging to certain species are removed from their property. If uncontrolled, the problem are likely to double within 15 years. 10 of 2004 by President Thabo Mbeki. Invasive plant fuel loads increase fire intensity and severely compromise the recovery of natural vegetation. Invasive plant data such as surveys and mechanical, chemical, and biological treatments can be viewed on the invasive plant map. One of the leading examples of the problem being taken seriously is in South Africa where, through the establishment of a "Working for Water" Programme, alien plants are being eradicated on a large scale whilst at the same time providing employment to a large number of people. Invasive alien flora and fauna in South Africa: expertise and bibliography by Charles F. Musil & Ian A.W. The information provided below provides a basic indication of the methods which need to be employed to address the growing problem of alien vegetation. In poor countries resources used for such programs may be regarded as diverting resources from other more pressing issues, however not attending to such problems often leads to larger costs in the long run. Here, we tested the hypothesis … Acacia) are invasive in any way. IAPs cost South Africans tens of billions of rand annually in lost agricultural productivity and resources spent on management. This should represent an improvement on the current state of affairs, and should allow for better decision-making. Apply herbicide mix with paintbrushes of knapsack sprayers at low pressure. They tend to utilise more resources to grow, in particular water. The EPPO Observation List was created by the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants in 2012. 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