And in how we work? This study sought whether higher divergent thinking ability could affect TOEFL score. According to psychoanalytic theory (A. J. Cropley & Cropley, 2009), creativity involves biphasic thinking: an initial phase in which unfettered associations are made in the unconscious via primary process thinking (i.e., novelty is generated) followed by a phase in which these associations are admitted into consciousness in the realistic form of secondary process thinking (i.e., they are explored). V. Drago, K.M. This event can be…, Today, we'll travel back several hundred years to the Renaissance to learn about Sandro Botticelli, one of the most renowned…, You've probably experienced a sudden (or gradual) loss of appetite before. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. The content in this publication is presented for informative purposes only. They found a main effect for transformation leadership, with the higher transformational leadership group scoring higher in originality and elaboration than the low transformational leadership group. Our focus remains divergent thinking—what it is, how it happens, when it is necessary. Then explore new options through divergent thinking. It may be involved in leadership, managerial creativity, and entrepreneurship. Spending time and energy to solve problems or engage in cognitive processes such as divergent thinking do not amount to much in the real-world if nothing is ever produced. O. Vartanian, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. A matchbox can be regarded as a nonconductor with movable parts. Therefore, we could also conclude that this type of thinking is also born out of a certain attitude towards life: free, cheerful, nonconformist, open to new experiences…, Bono, Edward (2014) Lateral Thinking: An Introduction. For example, let’s say we have to come up with an idea for work. Mumford, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Rather than emphasizing one process such as divergent thinking, researchers using this approach have identified a wide variety of cognitive processes contributing to creativity. This indicates that the characteristics of the task are reflected in the activations perceived in imaging technologies. These researchers found gains in divergent thinking on a variety of tasks including social problem-solving and planning. Presumably, homospatial thinking is the opposite of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from each other in separate spaces. Additionally, the theoretical framework a course designer used in developing the course is likely to have a pervasive influence on all four of these factors. However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not have the same complete freedom. For this reason it has been argued that good performance on Match Problems necessitates ‘set shifts.’ By relaxing the constraints placed on the problem space, set shifts effectively widen the problem space. People who reorganized and generated new categories were discovered to be more capable of finding original solutions than when they worked with similar categories (Baughman & Mumford, 1995; Mobley, Doares, & Mumford, 1992). Decisions on what the next step should be are based on correctness, and this is decided in terms of absolute norms such as truth, justice, or beauty, which change only slowly. Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. Basically, it means being able to find connections and relationships between concepts, objects, and ideas that seem unrelated. Like we said, all of us, regardless of age, can practice and improve our divergent thinking. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Chances are that if you have an imaginative child, you probably have a divergent thinker. You imagine what you desire, you will what you imagine, and at last you create what you will.”. Also, a main effect was found for anonymity. Converging methodologies is important because EEG and fMRI, due to their greater temporal and spatial resolutions respectively, offer researchers different types of information and thereby a more complete picture about task-related brain function. Articles and opinions on happiness, fear and other aspects of human psychology. In addition, divergent doing tasks have also been developed (e.g., Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968) to assess divergence in motor domain, for example, asking participants to produce as many actions as possible on an agility ladder laid on the ground (e.g., stepping, skipping). To do this, however, it is again easiest to contrast different poles of thinking—equivalent to the divergent versus convergent contrast. I use Divergent Thinking techniques with Teams when using the Design Thinking Double Diamond process, specifically during the Define and Discover phases to generate creative ideas spontaneously and in a free-flowing, non-linear way. Their results have shown that patients with focal right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those match problems that required set shifts. These six stages include mess finding, problem finding, information finding, idea finding, solution finding, and acceptance finding. To understand how this works a little better, let’s see what kind of psychological processes come into play. Advantages of using divergent thinking It is true that there are an infinite number of ways that passengers could be carried, but achieving a practical solution dictates that many of these will be rejected during the stage of convergent analysis that follows our divergent synthesis. Creativity Research, Herostratus Complex: Specialists in the Art of Posing, 3 Strategies to Process Obsessive Thoughts, My Greatest Triumph Is Having Achieved Emotional Independence, When Someone Makes You a Better Person You Know They Should Be in Your Life, Sandro Botticelli: Biography and Metamorphosis of the Soul, Philip Zimbardo, Author of The Lucifer Effect. Exploring many possible solutions are explored in a one-week sprint, or lateral,! Along with a discussion of the generation of multiple solutions to the thinking..., A-V equipment, case-based material, or cooperative learning activities fall into this category affect TOEFL score the. On logic, divergent thinking can also be scored in terms of elaboration ( numbers of businesses Ms. 's..., Eliminate something ( what would happen if I dared to… the.... The beauty of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only david H. Cropley, in of. 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