2009, Available at http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/CTCPUpdate2009.pdf, . Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Data show that only 36% of Malaysian smokers feel that smoking is a burden on their finances [11] compared to about 49% in Mauritus [59], and 22% of survey respondents [11] think that higher cigarette prices may motivate them to quit smoking. Several possible explanations for this finding are, urban residents are more often exposed to anti-smoking campaigns and measures, and the co-existence of other known risk factors for smoking, namely lower income and education levels, among those living in rural areas. Data was collected using the supervised self administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour … Smoking-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the main cause of premature death globally [1]. PubMed Central  (2008) [38], Cho et al. Education attainment was categorized into four levels: no formal education, primary education (1–6 years), secondary education (7–12 years), and tertiary education (more than 12 years and enrolled in university). 2000, 78: 1296-1305. Khang YH, Cho HJ: Socioeconomic inequality in cigarette smoking: trends by gender, age, and socioeconomic position in South Korea, 1989–2003. 2001, 33: 453-461. Yu Z, Nissinen A, Wartiainen E, Song G, Guo Z, Zheng G, Tuomilehto J, Tian H: Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China. 1999, 8: 53-56. In conclusion, this study reports and comments on the ongoing high prevalence of current male smokers in Malaysia. 2005, Malaysia: Institute for Public Health, National Institute of Health, Available from URL: http://www.globalforumhealth.org/filesupld/forum9/CD%20Forum%209/papers/Yusoff%20F.pdf. We would like to thank the Director-General of Health Malaysia for his permission to publish this paper. Since the introduction of the Control of Tobacco Products Regulation in 1993, the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in gazetted areas has reportedly declined while prohibition of smoking in Malaysian homes has increased from 7% in 2005 to 40.3% in 2009, with nearly half of all smokers designating their homes as non-smoking areas. Article  Helasoja V, Prattala R, Klumbiene J, Petkeviciene J, Kasmel A, Lipand A, Uutela A, Puska P: Smoking and passive smoking in Estonia, Lithuania and Finland. Shapoa L, Gilmorea AB, Cokera R, McKeea M, Shapob E: Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Tirana city, Albania: a population-based survey. Woobaidullah ASM (2011) Kajian sosio-ekonomi penanam tembakau di Malaysia. Selling of cigarettes to persons under the age of 18 has been forbidden since May 14, 1994. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. As Article 14 of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control is implemented worldwide, it will be helpful to those designing stop smoking services to plan for the kinds of clients they can expect and this depends on how far findings in one country can generalise to other countries. Lancet. (Ban on Smoking in Malaysian Eateries Takes Effect, STRAITS TIMES (Jan. 2, 2019).) Peto R: Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. Tob Control. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Imposing higher taxes on tobacco products may be an effective strategy to boost smoking cessation. Ferrante M, Fiore M, Leon L, Constantidines G, Castaing M, Fallico R, Sciacca S, Modonutti GB: Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in southern Italy. N Engl J Med. The International Tobacco Control Survey in 2009 [11] reported that only 9% adult smokers noticed clothing or other items linked to a cigarette brand. Data on monthly household income was obtained using an open-ended question asking for the exact income which was later categorized into three categories: (a) less than RM 2000, (b) RM 2000–2999, and (c) RM 3000 and above. Schoenbom C: Marital status and health: United States, 1999– 2002, advance data from vital and health statistics. Eur J Public Health. 1994, 309: 937-939. The present study found that 60% of Malaysian male smokers started smoking by the age of 18, which is higher than those reported in China (52.7%) [26], but lower than in the USA (80%) [33] and Canada (82.6%) [34]. Mathers CD, Loncar D: Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.02.010. Other studies by Huisman et al. A total of 34,305 respondents aged 18 years and older were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. World Bank: Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control. (Accessed on 5 February 2011), –2010, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: China Country report. http://www.google.com.my/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.moh.gov.my%2Fattachments%2F3996&ei=-zTtUOruLInVkwWklIC4DA&usg=AFQjCNE__D1pUqD9Z8CmrcU53TX7DvqEWQ&sig2=6jWFxsk8yAIhtHlqcCHjmA, http://www.globalforumhealth.org/filesupld/forum9/CD%20Forum%209/papers/Yusoff%20F.pdf, http://www.who.int/fctc/Malaysia_5y_report.pdf, http://jknj.moh.gov.my/jsm/day2/Speciality%20Symposia/SS_13_Smoking%20Cessation%20Bringing%20Aspiration%20into%20Reality.pdf, http://www.chamscircle.com/news.asp?zoneid=2&articleid=17, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Outputs/RITC/Malaysia_retailmarketing-Final_technical_report.pdf, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/mys.pdf, http://www.moh.gov.my/images/gallery/Report/GATS_Malaysia.pdf, http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/CTCPUpdate2009.pdf, http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Regional_Tobacco_Surveillance_System_GATS_Thailand_2009.pdf, http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/resources.ashx/TFI/2010GATSCountryReport_FinalVietnam.pdf, http://whoindia.org/en/Section20/Section25_1861.htm, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/en_gats_china_report.pdf, http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/resources.ashx/TFI/2009GATSCountryReport_FinalPhilippines.pdf, http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2010-09-vitalsigns.pdf, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/…/stat/ctums-esutc_2008-eng.php, http://www.portalfsss.um.edu.my/…/SYED%20ABD%20RAZ, http://fasa.umk.edu.my/bm/MS/2010/kajian-sosio-ekonomi-penanam-tembakau-di-malaysia/, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/8/prepub, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0. Health Policy. A lower smoking prevalence was found among men aged 50 years and above in this study, which is in accordance with estimates from Korea [43] (50.0% among 50–55 years old compare to 62.0% among age group of 30–34 years old) and Albania [44] (26.5% among respondents age 55–64, 40.9% among 45–54 years old compared to 58.7% among those age 25–34 years old). We analysed data from the NHMS III. It excludes smokeless tobacco use. 1992, 339: 1268-1278. (A).324: Food Act 1983. The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Potential factors contributing to the association between ethnicity and smoking status are many and deserve further investigation, especially as adjustment for age, socio-economic status and other factors did not remove the effect of ethnicity on smoking status. 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