Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born in the Roman province of Baetica (Andalusia). The statue of Trajan on top of the column was removed during the Middle Ages and replaced in 1588 by the present one of St. Peter. Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of the Danube. The fourth century emperor Constantine I is credited with saying "[Trajan] is like a spider that creeps up on every wall. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom, but the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. [183], That Charax traded with the Roman Empire, there can be no doubt, as its actual connections with merchants from Palmyra during the period are well documented in a contemporary Palmyrene epigraph, which tells of various Palmyrene citizens honoured for holding office in Charax. [58], As a senatorial Emperor, Trajan was inclined to choose his local base of political support from among the members of the ruling urban oligarchies. These figures should be considered only as a rough estimate. [48] The whole idea was that Trajan wielded autocratic power through moderatio instead of contumacia – moderation instead of insolence. Package; Trajan Complete Family Pack . Col. 1485. [181] That meant that Charax on the Persian Gulf was the sole remaining western terminus of the Indian trade route outside direct Roman control,[182] and such control was important in order to lower import prices and to limit the supposed drain of precious metals created by the deficit in Roman trade with the Far East. However, the fact that he chose not to hasten towards Rome, but instead to make a lengthy tour of inspection on the Rhine and Danube frontiers, hints to the possible fact that his power position in Rome was unsure and that he had first to assure himself of the loyalty of the armies at the front. He commissioned either the creation or enlargement of the road along the Iron Gates, carved into the side … [155] As Fronto added, amusements were a means to assure the general acquiescence of the populace, while the more "serious" issue of the corn dole aimed ultimately only at individuals. However, the overall scarcity of manpower for the Roman military establishment meant that the campaign was doomed from the start. [26][27] These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. Trajan deified Nerva and included his name in his imperial title. [106] According to the provisions of this treaty, Decebalus was acknowledged as rex amicus, that is, client king; nevertheless, in exchange for accepting client status, he received a generous stipend from Rome, as well as being supplied with technical experts. Jesper Majbom Madsen, Roger David Rees, eds. Trajan was a much more active ruler than Nerva had been during his short reign. Author of. [296], During the 1980s, the Romanian historian Eugen Cizek took a more nuanced view as he described the changes in the personal ideology of Trajan's reign, stressing the fact that it became ever more autocratic and militarized, especially after 112 and towards the Parthian War (as "only an universal monarch, a kosmocrator, could dictate his law to the East"). The full name of the city was Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi.Trajan named the city in commemoration of his mother Marcia, eldest sister Ulpia Marciana, and father Marcus Ulpius Traianus. [43][44] One of the most significant trends of his reign was his encroachment on the Senate's sphere of authority, such as his decision to make the senatorial provinces of Achaea and Bithynia into imperial ones in order to deal with the inordinate spending on public works by local magnates[45] and the general mismanagement of provincial affairs by various proconsuls appointed by the Senate. Rome, in particular, was enriched by Trajan’s projects. For the administration of the provinces, Trajan tried to secure competent and honest officials. Rome, le forum de Trajan Rome, le forum de Trajan (Italica 53-Sélinonte de Cilicie 117), empereur romain (98-117). In: Maricq: A precise description of events in Judea at the time being impossible, due to the non-historical character of the Jewish (rabbinic) sources, and the silence of the non-Jewish ones: William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz, eds.. Christer Bruun, "the Spurious 'Expeditio Ivdaeae' under Trajan". [239] No attempt was made to expand into the Iranian Plateau itself, where the Roman army, with its relative weakness in cavalry, would have been at a disadvantage. [243], Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire, in Egypt, Cyprus and Cyrene – this last province being probably the original trouble hotspot – rose up in what probably was an outburst of religious rebellion against the local pagans, this widespread rebellion being afterwards named the Kitos War. [285] After the setbacks of the third century, Trajan, together with Augustus, became in the Later Roman Empire the paragon of the most positive traits of the Imperial order. 3. [128] Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of the Danube. [200] Also, there was the propaganda value of an Eastern conquest that would emulate, in Roman fashion, those of Alexander the Great. [150] The victory was commemorated by the construction both of the 102 cenotaph generally known as the Tropaeum Traiani in Moesia, as well of the much later (113) Trajan's Column in Rome, the latter depicting in stone carved bas-reliefs the Dacian Wars' most important moments. In contrast, his successor Hadrian would stress the notion of the empire as ecumenical and of the Emperor as universal benefactor and not kosmocrator. [205], Finally, there are other modern historians who think that Trajan's original aims were purely military and quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the Khabur River in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. [251] Another rebellion flared up among the Jewish communities of Northern Mesopotamia, probably part of a general reaction against Roman occupation. [254] Whether or not the Kitos War theater included Judea proper, or only the Jewish Eastern diaspora, remains doubtful in the absence of clear epigraphic and archaeological evidence. This capital city was conceived as a purely civilian administrative center and was provided the usual Romanized administrative apparatus (decurions, aediles, etc.). [266] He probably did not take part in the Parthian War. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Trajan. The letters exchanged between Pliny and Trajan during the two years of Pliny’s governorship are preserved as the 10th book of his correspondence. Between 1880 and 2019 there were 153 births of Trajan in the countries below, which represents an average of 1 births of children bearing the first name Trajan per year on average throughout this period. As all four consulars were senators of the highest standing and as such generally regarded as able to take imperial power (capaces imperii), Hadrian seems to have decided on a preemptive strike against these prospective rivals. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. [250][258], In contrast, the next prominent Roman figure in charge of the repression of the Jewish revolt, the equestrian Quintus Marcius Turbo, who had dealt with the rebel leader from Cyrene, Loukuas,[259] retained Hadrian's trust, eventually becoming his Praetorian Prefect. There was also discontent among the frontier commanders. Omissions? [274][275] Trajan's ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan's column, the monument commemorating his success. [34], On his entry to Rome, Trajan granted the plebs a direct gift of money. In a fierce campaign which seems to have consisted mostly of static warfare, the Dacians, devoid of maneuvering room, kept to their network of fortresses, which the Romans sought systematically to storm[132] (see also Second Dacian War). Although misleadingly designated by some later writers as a provincial, his Ulpia gens came from Umbria and he was born a Roman citizen. Add to Cart Checkout In Cart (0) Desktop 55 27.50 55. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan was a soldier who spent most of his life involved in campaigns. Il est relativement tolérant envers les chrétiens. Certes, il descend de colons italiens immigrés, et il a même grandi au sein de la noble famille des Vlpii (il s'appelait Marcus Vlpius Traianus). Updates? Their military function fulfilled, most of them fell into disrepair or were wrecked on purpose after Trajan's reign: cf. He had pursued a senatorial career without particular distinction and had not been officially adopted by Trajan (although he received from him decorations and other marks of distinction that made him hope for the succession). 98 ap JC - 117 ap JC Trajan était le premier empereur romain né hors d'Italie, ce qui représente un changement remarquable dans la mentalité des Romains et une évolution considérable dans la conception du pouvoir impérial. Trajan was a Roman emperor (98–117 CE) who sought to extend the boundaries of the empire to the east, undertook a vast building program, and enlarged social welfare. Show popularity chart Trajan is a variant of the Latin name Traianus, whose meaning is unknown. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. RE XII. This name is mostly being used as a boys name. [298] It is in modern French historiography that Trajan's reputation becomes most markedly deflated: Paul Petit writes about Trajan's portraits as a "lowbrow boor with a taste for booze and boys". Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent sen… Her first full name was Ever, but her last name was Bloom, so her full name is Ever Bloom. Trajan is based on the inscriptional capitals from the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113. His imperial name … [129] Additionally, Trajan commissioned a canal to be built around the rapids of the Iron Gates. He also lessened taxes and was probably responsible for an innovation for which Nerva is given credit—the institution of public funds (alimenta) for the support of poor children in the Italian cities. [157] This devaluation, coupled with the massive amount of gold and silver carried off after Trajan's Dacian Wars, allowed the emperor to mint a larger quantity of denarii than his predecessors. He was personally present at the siege, and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. [249] That done, Trajan retreated north in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia – where he had already accepted an armistice in exchange for surrendering part of the territory to Sanatruces' son Vologeses[250] – and Mesopotamia. [158], Another important act was his formalisation of the alimenta, a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. Pliny – who seems to deliberately avoid offering details that would stress personal attachment between Trajan and the "tyrant" Domitian – attributes to him, at the time, various (and unspecified) feats of arms. [148] On the other hand, commercial agricultural exploitation on the villa model, based on the centralized management of a huge landed estate by a single owner (fundus) was poorly developed. [252] Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. It is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they certainly recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' 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