The conclusion is that Jesus no longer bleeds, suffers, or dies (Heb. What do I mean by that? That’s why it’s a celebration. That’s what we deserve. Only John noticed that hyssop was used, the branch prescribed in the Passover law for sprinkling the blood of the lamb (Ex.12:22). And Jesus takes them away from probably the most important family day of the year for a Jewish family and brings them together with Him. The Lamb in their midst then and the Lamb in our midst now and forever. Serve them.”, There’s a theologian who used to be an atheist by the name of Alister McGrath. He pays a slave’s price for the King of the universe. So this was a prearranged sign that Jesus had arranged for His disciples. Why then did he choose not to drink? He said to the Jews, ‘Behold your King!’ They cried out, ‘Away with him, away with him, crucify him! Cusses. The Fourth Cup By explaining the significance of the drinking of the fourth and final cup in the Old Testament Passover meal ceremony, Dr. Hahn draws a symbolic parallel to Christ's death on the Cross. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. There’s the betrayer who, like Peter, betrays Jesus. Nobody said, “You know what?” and John leaned over to Peter and goes, “I’ll bet it’s Judas.” That never happened. He is enthroned in his resurrected and glorified human body as our High Priest and King (Heb. Drawing symbolic parallels to the Last Supper, Christ’s death on Calvary, and our own journey to the cross, The Fourth Cup: Unveiling the Mystery of the Last Supper and the Cross presents scholarly insights and important biblical connections that will make the Mass and our Catholic faith … Paul reinforces the reality of this communion elsewhere: “The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation [koinonia] in the blood of Christ? The Fourth Cup not only tracks the author’s gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also explores the often obscure and misunderstood rituals of Passover and their importance in foreshadowing salvation in Jesus Christ. The first cup is called Sanctification (I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians), the second is Blessing (I will free you from being slaves to them), the third is Redemption (I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and mighty acts of judgment) and the fourth is Acceptance (I will take you as my people and I will be your God. It is precisely in this manner that the Father beholds a perfect and perpetual offering in the living body of the Son. We are ministers. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. David and I will serve this supper. We are weak, we are wounded, we are sick, we are sore. It’s how He communicates grace to us, communicates Christ to us – through the preaching of the Word and the taking in of the sacrament. 19:9, 21:2, 9-10, 22:17). Then the food was brought in. And the Lamb in our midst, now and forever, verses 22 to 25. But something he said stuck with me. (3) The Third Cup (the berakah cup): This cup follows the grace after the Meal. But only John tells us how he responded: “When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, ‘It is finished’; and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit” (19:30). But she kept this photograph so that when McGrath and his siblings found it, it was all crumpled up, barely recognizable. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him” (6:53-56). “I am going to be with you after I’m gone. [Readers may complain about my assuming the proto-Talmudic character of the liturgical structure of the seder. [Some scholars explain Jesus’ language by identifying it with “the cup of God’s wrath” in the Old Testament prophets (Is. The Catholic Social Teaching Bible Study introduces students to Catholic Social Teaching in general and to several of its central principles: the Universal Destination of Goods, the Right to Private Property, Subsidiarity, Solidarity, the Dignity of the Family, Environmental Stewardship, the Preferential Option for the Poor, and the Dignity of Work. And here is what He’s done – He drank it in your place. We’ve all got those scents, those smells that take us back almost more than what we remember seeing during certain events. It’s meant to arrest all five of our senses. The Host is Jesus. But we know they’re in the Bible and we know they’re true. This transcribed message has been lightly edited and formatted for the Web site. For one thing, I noticed that my King, Priest, and paschal victim, in his “hour of glory” while suffering on the cross, made a profound gesture: “After this Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), ‘I thirst.'”. We are to feast upon Jesus, the bread of life and our Passover Lamb. He later consumed the fourth cup while hanging from the Cross. There were four promises there. Because when that cup was drunk, the cup of consummation, the cup of joy, Jesus went to drink a different cup so that betrayers could come to this table. 11:29). John realized that the sixth hour was when the priests were prescribed to begin slaughtering lambs for the Passover. Product Description. I will take you for My people.” And so every time a Jewish family got together to celebrate the Passover, these four cups were there and this liturgy was celebrated. And if you think about it this way, Jesus is the ultimate Host who became a Host in His earthly life to those who should have been His hosts. We were buried with Him. We are dead in Him; we have been raised to newness of life in His resurrection. Such language reflects a solid belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Along the way, Hahn reveals how the traditional fourth cup of wine used in the concluding celebration of Passover explains in astonishing ways Christ’s paschal sacrifice. To view recordings of our entire services, visit our Facebook page. God is sovereign. The elders will serve it to you. He stated his intention not to drink wine again until he came into the glory of his Kingdom. First, the preliminary course consisted of a festival blessing (kiddush) spoken over the first cup of wine, followed by the serving of a dish of herbs. So as you’re familiar with that, as we read this scene before us, three things stand out immediately about this Passover scene that then is where the Lord’s Supper is instituted. He served the one who would betray Him and He is still serving betrayers today. You are saying, “I’m Yours, Jesus, and You are mine.” And you are saying with Paul, “You are 100% correct, Paul. And on the cross, Jesus drank the fourth cup. As we have seen, he refused some on one occasion, right before being nailed to the cross (Mark 15:23). If Jesus’ offering has ceased, there would be no basis for his ongoing priesthood, but Jesus’ priesthood is said to be permanent and to “continue forever” (Heb.7:24). What is this text teaching me about God? Does this mean that Jesus’ “once for all” sacrifice is exclusively past? Bring them in. And it’s important when we begin this whole description of the Passover to understand that Mark is very intentional in telling us when these things took place. He later consumed the fourth cup while hanging from the Cross. That’s how we think it means to remember Him. I’m going home in a few weeks back to South Carolina, and to this day, when I walk through the front door of the house where I grew up, a wall of memories hits me when I smell that house because it smells exactly the same way it did when I was Garner’s age. “He came to his own and his own received him not.” But He came to those who should have been His hosts and served them like His guests. And the power to be a good host in a selfish world is here tonight as Jesus the Host serves you, serves you at His table and says, “Go and invite others. . Or does it not assert that Jesus’ sacrifice, precisely because of its “once for all” character, has become the one perfect and perpetual offering he continually presents in heaven on our behalf? That is important because Jesus is telling us that this now, “The people I am gathering around Me, this is the true family of God. All of them think, “It couldn’t possibly be one of us.” Did you see that? Moreover, there would be no reason for an earthly altar if Jesus’ offering is ended, which is what I believed as an Evangelical Protestant–until I discovered that Scripture teaches the reverse: “We have an altar from which those who serve the tent have no right to eat” (Heb. Jesus’ sacrificial death, begun in the upper room and finished at Calvary, was not the full end of his Passover sacrifice either. Lord, we are about to hear the Word preached and then see the Word pictured in the sacrament You gave us of the Lord’s Supper. We have betrayed our Master in how we’ve lived and in how we have failed to do what He has called us to do. 5:7). She also published an article arguing that even John’s account of the upper room shares a paschal background, “The Calendar of Qumran and the Passion Narrative in John,” in J. Charlesworth, ed., John and Qumran (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1972), 62-75. For full copyright, reproduction and permission information, please visit the First Presbyterian Church Copyright, Reproduction & Permission statement. February 19, 2017. It felt as if I had never really comprehended the words before, though I had read the fourth Gospel all the way through many times. While this analysis may seem plausible, further reflection renders it improbable. We are to confess our sins and we’re to look at the bread and say, “He’s with us. In the middle of the message, he raised a simple question: “In John 19:30, what did Jesus mean when he cried, ‘It is finished’? Another point regarding John’s Gospel: I discovered in my research that the paschal character of the Last Supper is typically rejected by Catholics who approach such matters with a “more critical than thou” mindset. And what a joyous time that is. For the Son of Man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! One interesting note here is that men did not carry water. Recent study of biblical covenants by scholars such as D. J. McCarthy shows how such a covenant formed a sacred flesh-and- blood bond between Yahweh and Israel, making them one family. He draws a symbolic parallel to the Last Supper and Christ's death on Calvary. The heads of these households are gone from their families. That’s not what He’s saying to us. In this riveting journey into the Jewish roots of Christianity, Dr. Pitre explores … This is apparent from the singing of the “Great Hallel” which immediately follows: “And when they had sung a hymn. Death was only one.aspect of the sacrifice. That’s what Jesus is saying. Fury of God. 12:46): “that the Scripture might be fulfilled, ‘Not a bone of him shall be broken'” (19:33, 36). But Jesus is present by the power of the Holy Spirit when we come to this table. We’re the betrayers of Jesus. Download Full The Fourth Cup Book in PDF, EPUB, Mobi and All Ebook Format. I will rid you of bondage. The third course was the main meal, consisting of lamb and unleavened bread, after which was drunk the third cup of wine, known as the “cup of blessing.” The Passover climaxed with the singing of the “Great Hallel” (Psalms 114-118) and the drinking of the fourth cup of wine. And there are two kinds of betrayers at that table and that come to this table tonight. . Every generation had done that, and Jesus says, “It all ends tonight. And what that made it for us then, when we come tonight, is the cup of blessing. And each had a symbolic meaning in the feast. 10:16). Notice also there’s no mention of the Lamb in this text. I find the supposed conflict between the synoptics and John is resolved to my satisfaction by Annie Jaubert, The Date of the Last Supper (Staten Island: Alba House, 1965). I have a vivid recollection of a conversation with a friend at an Evangelical seminary we attended ten years ago. Paul shares a similar perspective when he states, “Christ our paschal lamb has been sacrificed.” (1 Cor. Thus, so long as I am not building my argument on a comprehensive identity of form between the two, I think I avoid any anachronism and remain on safe ground–indeed, the same safe ground as the vast majority of exegetes (e.g. First, Jesus’ claim to kingship in John comes precisely at the moment when he appears weakest and most vulnerable–when he is standing accused before Pilate (18:33-37). Then, at the very end, Jesus was offered “sour wine” (John 19:30; Matt.27:48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36). the Passover celebration in the upper room. The Passover lamb, you can read about it in Exodus 12, roasted whole, and with bitter herbs and stewed fruit. Someone could argue that it is anachronistic to retroject the seder liturgy from the Mishnah back to the first century. No wonder Paul warns, “For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself” (1 Cor. Second, only John mentions that Jesus was stripped of a seamless linen tunic (19:23-24). And that’s going to be very important when we come to the end. Upon hearing the angel announce the appearing of Jesus as “the Lion of the tribe of Judah,” John looks and beholds “a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain” (Rev. 7:27). He appears as the Lamb because his sacrificial offering continues. In sum, Calvary begins with the Eucharist and the Eucharist ends with Calvary. The main theme of Hebrews is the priesthood of Jesus, particularly as it relates to his “once for all” sacrifice (Heb. 5:8). I learned Scripture teaches that the Passover sacrifice of the New Covenant began in the upper room with the institution of the Eucharist, not merely with Jesus being crucified on Calvary, as I was taught and had been teaching. He’s a well-known theologian. Let’s look at these particulars of the institution of the Lord’s Supper. The result was to draw a little nearer to what Jesus meant when he said, “It is finished” (John 19:30). Joseph Jungmann).]. It says, “This is what the Lord did for me.” For me. And that’s where we come back to the fourth cup. . And betrayal plays a key part in this narrative. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. We pray in His name, amen. Granted, there are difficulties in that, but her work helps harmonize the five trials of Jesus (Annas, Caiaphas, Pilate, Herod, and Pilate), which fit much easier into a Tuesday to-Friday time frame than in a Thursday-midnight-to-morning frame. The clue, he contends, rest in the mysterious fourth cup that culminates the Jewish Passover meal. Notice first of all that Jesus does not drink that fourth cup. Truly, I say to you, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.’”. 28:4; Lev.16:4). We are not your hosts. It only came after graduation, in my first year as a pastor while studying Scripture in preparing a series of sermons on what we Presbyterians called “the Lord’s Supper.”. Let’s pray! After that, the meal was eaten and blessed and the third cup of wine was drunk and then the second part of the Hallel, Psalm 116 to 118. I don’t know any commentator who denies a connection here. 4:25). supports HTML5 video, Sermon by During that fateful night, every firstborn son in Egypt perished except those in Israelite families where a lamb without blemish or broken bones (Ex. I swear to My own hurt, as the Son of God,” is what He’s saying to them, “that this is going to come to pass.”. 13:15). Indeed, it will continue that way for God’s family forever into eternity. And what that tells us is that this Lord’s Supper that we’re going to celebrate here shortly is meant to take us back. Dr. Brant Pitre introduces his set, The Fourth Cup and the New Passover. 25:15). Little did I know. That’s the cup we deserve to drink. And when we talk about drinking this cup together, when you drank a cup in this culture it signified full identification, union with the person that you were drinking that cup with. I couldn’t hear the rest of his sermon. She’d been in love once in her life and this young man had been in love with her, their relationship ended tragically and she never married again. The second course included a recital of the Passover narrative and the “Little Hallel” (Psalm 113), followed by the drinking of the second cup of wine. Peter is saying curse words. He swore an oath. We were put to death, as it were, in Him. New Testament scholars see this pattern reflected in the Gospel narratives of the Last Supper. 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