Surgery is usually required to repair Talar OCD. San Francisco CA 94123, Osteochondral Autologous Autograft Transfer, The inside and top part of the lower bone of the ankle (the medial talar dome) or. Most cases of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus occur around the time of skeletal maturity (10-14 years of age for girls and 12-16 years of age for boys). With special emphasis on diagnosis, planning and rehabili-tation in press. Depending on how the ankle is injured, the problem can occur on the side of the talus closest to the other foot or on the outside part. However, it can also occur from chronic overload due to malalignment or instability of the ankle joint. Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) are those that affect the chondral and subchondral areas of the talus. Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the talus are defined as any damage involving both articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the talar dome. The outside and top part of the lower bone of the ankle (the antero-lateral talar dome). CT scans or an MRI can also provide a more detailed picture of what’s going on with the talus, but oftentimes an X-ray test will suffice. Other? The top of the talus is dome-shaped and is completely covered with cartilage. An osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is an area of abnormal, damaged cartilage and bone on the top of the talus bone (the lower bone of the ankle joint). OATS, BMS and ACI scored success rates of 87, 85 and 76%, respectively. Top arrow indicates bruising of the distal tibia and the lower red arrow indicates bruising of the talus Mechanical malalignment overloads either the medial or lateral boarders of the talus depending if there is tibial or hindfoot varus or valgus [8]. Show Related Articles from PubMed. CliniCAl prEsEnTATiOn Ankle pain may initially present acutely following an injury [Picture 5] Images: Case summary: 19 years old male hockey player with osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. Small area of compression 2. 19 years old male hockey player with osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. [Picture 2, 3 + 4] They are most commonly associated with ankle trauma and whilst many are asymptomatic, they can have a significant negative impact on the patient, most notably with regards pain and mobility. On the talus, this covering is about one-eighth of an inch thick. 6.1 Reticular bone bruising, distant from the articular surface. OCD usually causes pain during and after sports. Physical therapy: working on strengthening the muscles around the ankle, range of motion of the ankle, and balancing (. Did you know our resouces can be found in. Flattening of the medial talar dome. The average age at initial presentation was 13 years 4 months (range 6 years 7 months to 17 years 1 month). INTRODUCTION. The most common clinical sign of hock OCD is joint … Synovitis of the tibiotalar and subtalar joint. OCDs of the talus represent damage to the articular surface of the talar dome in the ankle joint. Osteochondral lesions are a type of fracture on the surface of the ankle bone (talus). Cartilage Grafting Options for Large or Microfracture-resistant Osteochondritis Dessican (OCD) Lesions of the Talus. Osteochondral defects of the talus (OCD) are a well-established pathology within the ankle. However, the larger the graft, the more likely it seems that it will collapse as a new blood supply is established into the graft after transplantation. This condition is also known as osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus or a talar osteochondral lesion (OCL). This can be done without a medial malleolar osteotomy. cartilage injury with associated subchondral fracture but without detachment 169 Part V – Outcome measures Chapter 15 Outcome measures Talar OCD. Laboratory and clinical work continue in this area. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus is rare in children. However, if the lesion is large enough, or the overlying cartilage is displaced, talar OLTs can be quite symptomatic. The lesion involved the medial aspect of the talus in 19, the lateral in 5, and the central talar dome in 3. Retrograde drilling and fixation scored 88 and 89%, respectively. Osteochondritis dissecans. knee). OLTs can be an incidental finding on an MRI ordered to assess another problem. OCD occurs in a number of locations in the hock, including the intermediate ridge of the tibia (most common), the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus, the medial malleolus of the tibia, and the medial trochlear ridge of the talus. The most common sites are the posteromedial (53%) (Fig. The talusis one of the large bones in the back part of the foot that helps form the ankle joint. Osteochondral allografts (Cadaver grafts) have been used to treat large talar lesions with some success. The lesion is encountered on either the medial or lateral surface of the talar dome. [Picture 1] OCD medial Talus . It is a very common disease in Standardbreds but is also quite common in Quarter Horses and Arabians. Small talar beaking. This condition is also known as either osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus or as a talar osteochondral lesion (OCL). 1. treatment? Partially detached osteochondral lesion 3. for OCD of the talus at a major Canadian pediatric referral center. focal injuries to the talar dome with variable involvement of the subchondral bone and cartilage resulting in osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) may be caused by traumatic event or result of repetitive microtrauma; Epidemiology . History and previous treatment: AS BG (ligament repair) for ankle instability . I would go for a lift-drill-fill-fix procedure. The gold standard for diagnosis of talar OLTs is an MRI of the ankle (Figure 3A and 3B). Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus is a subchondral bone pathology that presents as an osteochondral lesion of the talar dome with consequent articular cartilage abnormalities. lage OCD may have genetic risk factors that predispose them to developing the disease, although as per Zanon et al9 in ‘Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Talus’, ‘there are no ongoing studies to identify such genes’. The mean time of follow-up was 36 months (range, 25-49). Current complaints: Deep left ankle pain during sport and axial bearing/load on left ankle and swelling. OLTs on the top outside part of the talus (Antero-lateral lesions) usually have a history of a traumatic injury with a twisting component, such as an ankle sprain. Open the cyst anterior and fill it with bonegraft. The talus is the 3rd most common site (after the knee and elbow) of osteochondral lesions. The top of the talus is part of the joint and is covered with articular cartilage, the white, slippery material that covers all joint surfaces. Synovitis of the tibiotalar and subtalar joint. A talar dome lesion is an injury to the cartilage and underlying bone of the talus within the ankle joint. 2. postoperative treatment regime? The area where OCD occurs is located at the top of the talus. arthroscopic debridement and drilling? This may lead to small cracks in the cartilage or even formation of a hole or cyst underneath the surface. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the ankle is a disorder of the talar or distal tibial subchondral bone and articular cartilage whose incidence in children is not clearly known. OCD of the Talus Tx. OCD is often diagnosed with the help of an X-ray because it can easily reveal that a fragment has chipped off of the larger bone. Completely detached , non-displaced fragment 4.Completely detached and displaced fragment Ct or MRI will give more information with a suspected lesion . OCD Lesions of Talus Introduction The ankle joint of made up of 3 bones; the tibia (including the medial malleolus), the fibula (including the lateral malleolus) and the talus. Osteochondral Allograft Transfer (i.e., Cadaver): A bone and cartilage plug may also be obtained from a cadaver and transplanted into the OLT. During sports and long walking : anterior and deep ankle pain and sometimes "blocking" of motion in the left ankle. This may include: FootEducation LLC Together with the newer techniques OATS and ACI, BMS was identified as an effective treatment strategy for OCD of the talus. OCD remains uncertain. This term covers a wide spectrum of pathologies including (sub)chondral contusion, osteochondritis dissecans, osteochondral fracture and osteoarthritis resulting from longstanding disease. Two children had bilateral involvement, for a total of 26 lesions. CT scans or an MRI can also provide a more detailed picture of what’s going on with the talus, but oftentimes an X-ray test will suffice. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD or OD) is a joint disorder primarily of the subchondral bone in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. Treatment options for large talar osteochondral lesions (greater than 1.5 cm) or those that fail to adequately respond to microfracture, have broadened over the last decade, with most procedures directly aimed at hyaline-like cartilage restoration. Plain x-rays can be used to help diagnose an osteochondral lesion. In later stages of the disorder there will be swelling of the affected joint which catches and locks during movement. While initial symptoms may be similar to a sprained ankle, persistent pain, swelling, and a catching sensation while using the ankle may indicate this more serious condition. These various types of damage are called osteochondral defects (OCD) of the talus (an older term was osteochondritis dissecans). Physical exam usually reveals some swelling and localized pain along the front of the ankle (ankle joint line). Plain film mortise view (consider repeat in 2-4 weeks if films are normal) Four classes 1. CT with flexion of the ankle : osteochondral defect of the anteromedial and centromedial talar dome with cyst formation on the anterior side, 2.2cm anteroposterior size and 14mm mediolateral size. Th… Where does OCD develop? It is often associated with a traumatic injury, such as a severe Normal ROM of the tibiotalar joint, slight tenderness anterior and slight swelling of the tibiotalar joint. Research studies show OCD lesion in the talus in 70% of ankle fractures, 60% of ankle sprains. • Accounts for only 4% of reported cases of OCD – Vascular etiology? An MRI of the OLT may show that the cartilage and bone damage is displaced (out of position) or non-displaced (perfectly in position). X-ray: Description of patient (type of occupation, indication of age, intensity of sport): 28 years old and sportive patient . Surgical treatment is indicated for displaced talar OLTs or lesions that have not improved with appropriate non-operative management. Unfortunately, this approach in the ankle has not yet met with the type of clinical success that had been hoped for, and is not currently broadly available. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The talus sits inside the joint and allows the up and down motion of the ankle. [Picture 5]. Areas of decreased density (i.e., darker areas) seen on the plain x-rays (Figure 2) can be indicative of this condition, although it is not uncommon for the plain x-rays to be read as normal. Osteochondral lesions are most common in the knee joint, and the ankle is the next most frequent joint affected. The earliest report of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) was published in 1888 by Konig, who characterized a loose-body formation associated with articular cartilage and subchondral bone fracture. Osteochondral lesion of Talus & Ankle Osteochondral lesion also known as OCD or Osteochondritis dissecans is the injury to the cartilage and subchondral bone. The fragment is large enough to fix. Whereas, the OLTs on the inside part of the top of the talus (medial talar osteochondral lesions) are more commonly associated with chronic overload of the medial aspect of the ankle, such as would occur in a patient with a higher arched foot (subtle cavus foot). Younger patients, particularly growing children or adolescents, have a much better chance of healing an OLT compared to adults. This condition is also known as either osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus or as a talar osteochondral lesion (OCL). An osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is an area of abnormal, damaged cartilage and bone on the top of the talus bone (the lower bone of the ankle joint). However, it can also occur from chronic overload due to … It is often associated with a traumatic injury such as a severe ankle sprain. OCD lesions are also called osteochondritis dissecans or osteochondral fractures. This treatment approach can be initially attempted in non-displaced OLTs. As the ankle twists, the edge of the talus bone impacts the adjacent bone which bruises or shreds the cartilage. OCD is often diagnosed with the help of an X-ray because it can easily reveal that a fragment has chipped off of the larger bone. dissecans (OCD) of talus • “Osteochondrosis”?? Cast immobilization: If the OLT occurs following an acute injury, initial immobilization in a cast for 4-6 weeks can help reduce stress on the OLT and allow healing. “Osteo” means bone and “chondral” refers to cartilage. MRI : OCD of the talus with loose bone fragment and bone oedema in the talar body. The average age at surgery was 22.7 years (range, 19-34). [] In 1922, Kappis described this process in the ankle joint. These symptoms could include localized ankle pain, as well as discomfort on either the inside (medial talar OLT) or outside (anterolateral talar OLT) of the ankle. This condition is known as Talar OCD, or an osteochondral lesion of the talus. Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management.. stage I. injury limited to articular cartilage; MRI findings: subchondral edema; x-ray findings: none; stage II. OCD talus. OCLs most commonly occur in two areas of the talus (Figure 1A and 1B): Many patients with talar OLTs are asymptomatic (no pain or swelling). This prevents the need from harvesting bone and cartilage from another part of the body (ex. OCD of the Talus Radiographs. Osteochondral Defects . The pain is often worse with activities, particularly running, walking and jumping. When osteochondritis dissecans affects the ankle it typically occurs on the inner or medial portion of the ankle (talus). MRI : OCD of the talus with loose bone fragment and bone oedema in the talar body. This is referred to as an osteochondral defect (OCD) or osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT). They may also complain of mechanical symptoms, such as clicking and popping sounds caused by a loose fragment of cartilage and/or bone associated with the OLT. The etiology is unknown, although trauma has been implicated, particularly in lateral lesions. incidence 69% of ankle fractures; 70% of ankle sprains; 10% are bilateral The bone lesions on the lateral or outside portion of the talus are most often related to trauma. Period of non-weight bearing since this is a big lesion? All operative techniques can be downloaded here. This may affect healing… 269 Chestnut St. #271 Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for differentiation.13 Juvenile OCD has better healing potential than adult-onset OCD. The mean size of defect of OCD was 13.6 mm x 7.2 mm. Surgical treatment of talar OLTs includes: Any other significant pathology that exists may also need to be addressed at the time of surgery. There is an increasing prevalence of … – Localized ischemia & AVN – Not an inflammatory process so the term“osteochondritis” is a misnomer – Younger patient – No history of trauma – More on medial side. If you want advise on a difficult case, you can upload it here. The cartilage lining of the joint is crucial to allow […] 1) and anterolateral (46%) talar dome (1). It occurs when OCD develops in an articulating surface before closure of the growth plate.14 Owing to rarity of juvenile OCD of the talus, existing management guidelines are predominantly An osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is an area of abnormal, damaged cartilage and bone on the top of the talus bone (the lower bone of the ankle joint). It is often associated with a traumatic injury, such as a severe ankle sprain. Anterior Impingement- After Total Ankle Replacement. Fixation with a headless compression screw or absorbable screw. Additional investigation (CT/MRI): Cartilage repair techniques. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACI): There has been an attempt to harvest a patient’s own healthy cartilage, grow the cells in a lab, and then reimplant these cells back into the area where the cartilage has been lost. Because of the relatively high cost of ACI and the knee morbidity seen in OATS, we conclude that BMS is the treatment of choice for … May be due to micro trauma or a traumatic event. healing of osteochondral defects of the talus: an experimental goat study Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2013;21:1746-54. Non-operative treatment can be successful for non-displaced talar OLTs, especially if the condition is recognized and treated early, and the lesion is relatively small. Eighteen symptomatic advanced-stage osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the talus (Berndt and Harty stages III 7 and IV 11) in 17 patients were treated with multiple autogenous osteochondral cylindrical grafts. There are several non-operative management options for the treatment of osteochondral lesions, including: In younger patients, this condition has the potential to heal, making it possible to treat acute non-displaced talar OLTs with immobilization in a cast or CAM walker. Fig. Microfracture. 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